Contemporary Muslim Interpretation of Islam and Democracy - Essay Example
Reconciling Islam and Democracy
Three components of Islamic legal ideology are generally viewed as being incompatible with civil liberties or democracy, namely, corporal punishments, the legal inequality between Muslims and non-Muslims, and the legal gender inequality (Bowering, 2012, p. 129). Those who do not support the argument that governance in modern states has to be carried out within the context of Islamic legal doctrine do view religion as an integral foundation of a political system. They stress that democratic regimes depend on the presence of a particular philosophy for the people to comply with the law and for leaders to focus on the interests of the general public. As stated by Soroush, â€œDemocracy cannot prosper without commitment to moral precepts. It is here that the great debt of democracy to religion is revealed: Religions, as bulwarks of morality, can serve as the best guarantors of democracyâ€ (Bowering, 2012, p. 130). Although democratic regimes have to be unbiased towards religion and other worldviews, they do depend on moral codes, of which religious traditions could be a basis, including republican and constitutional principles.
Mohammad Arkoun is one of the leading supporters of moderate Islam and Islamic modernity at present. Arkounâ€™s major interest is analysing both Islamic and Western traditions, and, at the same time, to develop a new jurisprudential and philosophical model of interpreting and applying Islam.. He has promoted controversial, revolutionary views.
12/5/2019 0 Comments
Constantine the Great - Term Paper Example
In 284, the Empire was ruled by General Diocletian and co-Emperor Maximian; Caesares were appointed by leaders, one of them being Constantius. A system known as tetrarchy was implemented which divided the Empire into four territories with one officer assigned to defend each territory. This system became much more efficient in putting the end to the civil wars and the Empire was able to successfully defend against Persian and German raids. The tax system was reformed and the increased revenue allowed the construction of walls and other defenses; by the fourth century the Empire was considered stable.
Christians were a minority population and refused to recognize the Roman Empire as a divine entity and would not submit to taxation, sacrifices or imperial service. In 303, Christians were pronounced enemies of the State. Christians were prosecuted in an attempt to force them into loyalty. It was during the campaigns of Diocletian that Constantine gained experience and military training. Constantius died in 306 and the common people declared Constantine as successor though this support and decision was unpopular and not favored by others in the tetrarchy.
Constantine married the daughter of Maximian, who was granted shelter at Constantineâ€™s court when he later became enemies with Maxentius. A conference in 308 insisted upon Constantine relinquishing his title of Augustus and return to being only a Caesar but Constantine refused. Maximian made an attempt to gain power and Constantine, upon learning this, immediately marched into Gaul. Maximian either committed suicide or was executed in 310 (â€œEmperor Constantineâ€).
Constantine had an amazing vision in which he claimed to see the symbol of Christ shining above the sun, he imagined this to be a divine vision and had his soldiers paint the symbol on their shields. It seemed Constantineâ€™s conversion was genuine and
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